Pilot 10 – Nitrate removal using IEMB reactor

Location: Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
Pilot Leaders: BGU/IITM

Water challenge in this location: The SBR plant at IIT Madras features a tertiary treatment system consisting of ultra-filtration and ozonation. Though anoxic system is provided in the SBR, the treated water is still having significant levels of nitrate (10-25 ppm) and nitrite (7 – 9 ppm). As a result of residual nutrients, the storage ponds are having significant amount of eutrophication. This also limits the reuse potential of the treated water. Providing a treatment system to reduce the residual nutrients will increase the treated water reusability significantly.

Benefits of the technology: Providing a treatment system that reduces the residual nitrogen-based nutrients significantly increases usability of the treated secondary and tertiary effluents. The main advantages of the technology include:

  • Bioreactor kept separate from the water treated – so no need to remove back-contamination of bacteria or organic load;
  • Simple to operate – just two process flow streams and simple controls for pH; and
  • It is flexible in that multiple modules in parallel allow increase in capacity and multiple modules in series allows to reach whatever extent of nitrate/nitrite removal that is required.

Potential for India: Greatly reduce health risks of using recycled water for irrigation and drinking – many supplies are presently compromised, and this would help to provide safe drinking and irrigation water from these supplies.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: Nutrient pollution is a major problem in India. Most of the existing sewage treatment plants do not have the facility to remove nutrients. Hence, such a system can be used as add on units to any existing wastewater treatment plant with excess nitrate and nitrite levels. Hence there is significant potential for replication and upscaling across India.

Pilot 9 – Disinfection by means of sand pressure filter plus UV and ultrasound

Location: Burhanpur (Madhya Pradesh)

Water challenge in this location: An existing WWTP will be upgraded with a tertiary treatment.

Benefits of the technology: The aim is to provide a sustainable and robust tertiary treatment train which can be easily employed in the upgrading of obsolete existing STP or new ones. The combination of UV-LED lamps (lower energy costs) and chlorination guarantees the safe reuse of the reclaimed water (maintenance chlorination avoids the reactivation of pathogens after the UV- disinfection).

Potential for India: Decentralized wastewater treatment plants that do not provide sufficient treatment to provide safe reuse are very common across India. Therefore, there is a high potential for low cost post treatment systems to enhance effluents of existing treatment plants to be safe for reuse. In particular there is a high demand for agriculture to use safe treated wastewater as more than 60 percent of India’s irrigated agriculture is dependent on groundwater which is depleting fast in many areas. The implementation of low- cost and low O&M treatments for the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture, such as those included in this pilot action, will significantly contribute to reducing the negative effects derived from overexploitation of conventional resources and the drought on the agricultural sector of India.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: As the technology will be locally constructed and implemented at an existing wastewater treatment plant there is a large demand for post treatment of existing treatment plants, there is a great potential for replication and up-scaling of this technology.

Pilot 8 – Ultrasonic treatment of sludge

Location: Kharagpur (West Bengal)
Pilot Leaders: TU Delft/IITKGP

Water challenges in this location: As IIT Kharagpur is located in a water stressed area, there is no provision of septage management that exist in India and sludge form the septic tank is haphazardly discharged on ground creating a source for surface and groundwater contamination. This proposed technology once successfully demonstrated, shall offer a hygienic solution to the septage management and can be replicated for upliftment of the living condition of the people.

Benefits of the technology: The technology will deliver a solution towards sludge management by lowering the residual organic matter in the sludge, decreasing the pathogen content and reducing the bulking of sludge by destroying filamentous microorganisms. Further, this technology is also expected to reduce refractory organics and potentially organic micropollutants in the treated effluent, such as healthcare products and this would reduce the risk of bio assimilation while reusing treated water. Ultrasonic pre-treatment of sludge will provide better disintegration of sludge which can be further used in anaerobic digestion for enhanced biodegradability and recovery of methane or VFA. An existing sludge digester of 2 cubic metres capacity (demonstrated in Saraswati project earlier) will be used for methane recovery from the disintegrated sludge1. Combined with the acidifying digester and the production of photoheterotrophic biomass, we expect the ultrasound disintegration and disinfection will give boost to the utilization potential of municipal sewage sludge.

Potential for India: Effluent decontamination and management, as well as sewage and bio-sludge management, are increasingly in demand due to India’s rapid industrial progress and population rise. The emergence of persistent pollutants in the sewage stream is a serious concern in the Indian context. Additionally, groundwater contamination of partially/untreated sludge and sewage also diminishes the arable land capacity in the locality. Treatment schemes have to be integrated with the treatment of the xenobiotic compounds in addendum to the conventional treatment of sewage/sludge. Therefore, this technology has a great potential to help solving those water challenges across India.

Scope for replication/up scaling across India: The proposed device is designed using easily sourced, tried and tested technology components. Device fabrication, both for pilot plant and for industrial scale, uses indigenously available techniques and equipment. Thus, the potential for cost savings for India is significant, compared to sourcing intellectual property, technology and equipment from overseas for sludge management and decontamination plants, as well as potentially waste-water recovery plants.

Pilot 7 – Cambi sludge digestion

Location: Roorkee(Uttarakhand)
Pilot Leaders: Cambi/IITR

Water challenge in this location: The management of waste sludge is becoming challenging in metro cities of India. The situation becomes worsened due to the unavailability of landfill area and reluctant to use by farmers. The cost of sludge management is increasing to 20-30 % of the plant operational cost. Anaerobic treatment of sludge for energy rich biogas recovery is a good option to offset the cost of sludge treatment at some extent. However, there are technical and operational difficulties obstructing the utilization of anaerobic sludge digestion method at wastewater treatment facilities. In order to fully utilize the potential of anaerobic digestion, higher gas yield, one of the most successful pre-treatment system is thermal hydrolysis by CAMBI. By providing Cambi pre-treatment process, more than double digester loading can be achieved with shorter retention time: Reducing digester volume and construction cost, as well as saving space or increasing existing capacity.

Benefits of the technology: Key benefits are Pathogen removal (produce Class A biosolids), high biogas yield, intensification of assets (smaller digesters), better dewatering, odour control and less odour of end- product – possibly combined with post-dewatering stabilization/composting and reduction of sludge volume to be disposed. Use digestate directly without dewatering (advantage is less than half volume of digestate – high concentration of nutrients, sterilized).

Potential for India: The technology has a huge potential for India. Cambi can catalyze all inefficient and junk anaerobic digesters of India. Higher methane and high-quality pathogen free digestate can be focal advantage.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: As sludge treatment market in India is in nascent stage, Cambi can start THP equipment in India. The potentiality of the knowledge obtained in this research project for the valorization in the Indian industries is high.

Pilot 6 – Anaerobic digestion with electrically conductive biofilter

Location: Kharagpur (West Bengal)
Pilot Leaders: CENTA/IITKGP

Water challenge in this location: IIT Kharagpur campus and nearby states are facing water challenges where people are mostly relying on groundwater source for meeting the water demand. Also, the sanitary infrastructure in this part of country is extremely poor and most of the people are relying on septic tank for treatment of black water and effluent of the septic tank is released in the environment, leading to pollution of surface and groundwater. Hence affordable solutions need to be demonstrated for sustainable decentralized black water treatment for minimizing the water pollution and protection of public health.

Benefits of the technology: The electroconductive biofilter provides the following benefits: Simple operation, robust design, low space requirements, less energy consumption (apart from pumping if required) and zero production of sludge. The electroconductive biofilter will be followed by sand filtration (providing SS and turbidity removal) and disinfection by means of UV –lamps and electrodisinfection (low energy requirements; on site generation, no handling and storage of chemicals; low generation of trihalomethanes). Solar panels will be employed for energy supply in the disinfection unit; thus, increasing the long-term sustainability of the proposed treatment plant.

Potential for India: This system can either be used as secondary or tertiary treatment as an add-on to existing treatment plants, or in combination with e.g. an UASB reactor as in this pilot for complete treatment of blackwater. As outlined earlier, there is a high need of simple and robust wastewater treatment system and therefore this system has a high potential for application in India.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: As the technology will be locally constructed and implemented as a post treatment of an existing UASB reactor (which also was locally built as part of the Saraswati project) there is a great potential for replication and up-scaling of both the combined package of UASB reactor and post treatment as proposed in this pilot, and the post treatment as an add-on to existing blackwater treatment plants.

Pilot 5 – Anaerobic digestion with photoheterotrophic bioreactor

Location: Kharagpur (West Bengal)
Pilot Leaders: TU Delft/IITKGP

Water challenges in this location: The intensive use of groundwater in the region heavily affects the groundwater table. The river water procurement incurs high pumping expenditures in terms of energy expenses, manpower & machinery, and capital establishment. The total treatment cost of fresh water used on campus premises is around 25 INR per cubic metres. Depleting groundwater and water resources in and around the region calls for attention towards recycling and reuse of treated water. This can help remediating this critical situation and moving towards a sustainable future by attempting to divert fresh water for domestic uses. After successful demonstration of this technology, similar models can be adopted in across the state where the scarce sanitation infrastructure results in pollution of surface water bodies and groundwater. This unfavourably leads to high expenses on public health care and severe reduction of man-hours and societal productivity. A sustainable solution for black water treatment needs to be demonstrated to provide a healthy living condition for the mass.

Benefits of the technology: The composite process is attractive by combining production of VFA from organic matter via mixed-culture fermentation and production of a protein-rich photoheterotrophic biomass that can be valorised as fertilizer. The benefits of this attractive environmental biotechnology are multiple. It thrives on the implementation of anaerobic organisms, therefore suppressing aeration and minimizing energy costs, resulting in a full biological removal of nutrients from the wastewater. Overall, the technology will result in treatment of blackwater, full biological nutrients removal, pathogens inactivation, recovery of a high-yield and protein-rich biomass as fertilizer, and recovery of water for reuse, while protecting the environment and human health.

Potential for India: The treatment scheme proposed for this pilot uses minimum energy input and also focuses on resource recovery through a very basic innovative design, which can be constructed easily using local resources. It therefore has a lot of potential in terms of application.

Scope for replication/upscaling across India: The ability to implement this technology at a decentralised household level without much cost implication (by use of existing septic tank after certain minor modifications) and lesser footprint on land makes it more adoptable for upscaling in India. The proposition of resource recovery from sludge as fertilizers and reuse of water with limited, but dedicated manual intervention also increases the suitability of this technology for scaling up, both at household community level as well as for centralised treatment facility.

Pilot 4 – RBC followed by sandfilter

Location: Mumbai (Maharashtra)
Pilot Leaders: CENTA/NITIE

Water challenge in this location: The principal water challenges are related with: (i) scarcity of water as the water resources are far away from the city and demand-supply gap is increasing, (ii) space constraint for STP installation; need for compact plant design, (iii) Efficient sewage treatment is essential for promoting safe water reuse (iv) use of fresh water (surface and groundwater) for irrigation purposes (v) potential reuse of treated wastewater in the irrigation of current and new plots of land, thus, improving the living conditions of the population (access to safe food).

Benefits of the technology: The combination of robust and compact technologies for wastewater treatment (RBC and Sand filtration) and for water reclamation (Electrochemical disinfection) guarantees the safe reuse of the treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Besides, the use of Electromagnetic treatment improves the physicochemical quality of the water that leads to an enhanced crops’ production. Further, as the RBC is closed tank aeration, it will be odourless. It will be able to handle shock load due to better aeration. It is cost effective. It will require minimal civil work and will be an automated process.

Potential for India: RBC is a technology that is compact and scalable and can be installed at land-constrained locations to recycle water at small scale. As outlined earlier there is in general a high demand in India for reliable and robust decentralized wastewater treatment plants.

Scope of replication and upscaling: The plant will be locally constructed with the involvement of BMC. Hence, excellent stakeholder visibility will greatly enhance the scope of replication within India.

Pilot 3 – BioKube Mars packaged wastewater treatment plant

Location: Jaipur (Rajasthan)/ Kishangarh (Rajasthan)
Pilot Leaders: BioK/MNIT; BioK/CURAJ

Water challenge in this location: The location in Jaipur has medical wastewater which can be contaminated with a variety of pathogens. The location at CURAJ is typical for cities across India that have no wastewater treatment plants for smaller residential areas.

Benefits of the Technology: Mars plants are ready to install packaged wastewater treatment plant (and hence can be quickly and easily installed) that can be operated in a fully automatic and energy efficient way. Apart for the removal of phosphorous no consumables (chemicals) are required for operation. The filter media is of high quality and can be easily lifted for cleaning purpose. It further features a self-cleaning system using air lift pumps for the post settling. The system is well designed with no moving parts, which translates into very low operational expenditures. It has a guaranteed 25 year lifetime.

Potential for India: As outlined in previously, India is lacking reliable decentralized (smaller-scale) wastewater treatment plants that can meet stricter effluent standards. Hence there is a large demand for such reliable package plants. In particular in situations with clinical wastewaters reliable treatment plants are required.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: Biokube is alreay cooperating with Waterneer in India which are selling the plants in India. Hence, upon successful piloting the technologies can be quickly replicated an upscaled across India.

Pilot 2 – Small C-TECH SBR

Location: Haridwar (Uttarakhand)
Pilot Leader: IITR

Water challenge in this location: The water quality of the River Ganga at u/s of Haridwar is very good. However, it deteriorates downstream due to the abstraction of water for agriculture and other public purpose and discharge of untreated wastewater from villages and habitations at the bank of river. Several villages and hamlets are located in this stretch which requires immediate attention. It is important to note that unabated discharge of treated sewage cannot bring the river water to bathing quality level in lean season river flow. Hence, to achieve bathing water quality at downstream of Haridwar to Garhmukteshwar, advanced small size STPs are required.

Benefits of the technology: The system offer following distinct advantages over conventional SBR system

  • Co-current nitrification and denitrification allows operating without mixing equipment. Proper oxygen demand/supply operation control by OUR (Oxygen Uptake Rate) in combination with the SELECTOR allows controlling this process.
  • The OUR reduces the aeration time during night time automatically due to less influent and less load at night time. This increases the lifetime of blowers and diffusers and reduces the energy demand.
  • Conventional SBR systems do not have an anaerobic selector. Hence, filamentous sludge bulking in conventional SBR systems is a problem, which can only be avoided with additional equipment like equalization tanks and pumps.
  • For C-TECH good references of existing large-scale plants are at hand.

Potential for India: The features of the technology greatly reduce the O&M requirement and operator’s attention and thus have a very high potential in India. Also in hilly areas, the centralized sewer collection is very difficult and also space for the construction of sewage treatment plants is limited. The modular construction of the C-TECH plant enables small wastewater treatment, can be quickly installed within these areas and offers a considerable potential to solve pollution related problems of the Ganga and other rivers. Additionally, the effluent from the plant offers a potential for non-potable applications. Since it is energy efficient and requires smaller land footprint, the plants already a great success in urban India.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: The proposed small-scale container C-TECH plant will be designed by IITR in consultation with SFC Environmental Technologies, an Indian based company which markets middle and large sized C-TECH plants in India. Hence, upon successful piloting of a small-scale C-TECH plant in India, demonstrating all benefits highlighted above, there is a huge scope of replication and upscaling in India as manufacturing can be easily set up in India.

Pilot 1 – UASB and deammonification

Location: Bhubaneswar (Orissa)
Pilot Leaders: UT / IITBBS

Water challenge in this location: The water demand in the area comprises of the residential, academic and recreational area’s water requirement. In addition, the campus is in a budding stage of the construction of academic and residential buildings, developing plantations and green belts, which add to the water demand. The water demand in the campus is presently met from the groundwater source. The water extraction from the area is depleting the groundwater level. Therefore, the proposed study will emphasize on the reuse of wastewater for flushing, gardening and aesthetic enhancement. The process will be conducted with an eco-friendly biological treatment system.

Benefits of the technology: Novel biological treatment methods are much more economical treatment paths due to no requirement of organic carbon and less aeration energy needed for the treatment. Additionally, owing to the autotrophic nature, generation of sludge is considerably lower than the conventional treatment processes. Emerging autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies already used in Europe and USA could be benefitted in India for wastewater treatment.

Potential for India: The energy efficient technologies for integrated COD and nutrient removal are in focus for India. Application of autarchic treatment technologies has a huge potential as an energy efficient nitrogen removal process and hence also suitable for rural areas with unstable energy supply.

Scope of replication/upscaling across India: Approaching to zero- waste generation and energy production from waste concepts would enhance India’s economic, environmental and political status. Biological nutrients removal is of utmost important for India due to large population and lack of advanced but affordable biological wastewater treatment technologies. Achievement of proper deammonification process involved microorganisms cultivation technologies from scratch and spreading to various wastewater treatment plants may be a viable solution to the issue of environmental pollution by the large population at warm climate conditions. With warm climate presence, several anaerobic biological treatment technologies depending on temperature would be suitable for nutrients removal. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers have optimum growth temperature of about 30°C making it suitable for treatment of nutrients coming from mainstream wastewater.